The report "MADE IN ITALY TO REPRESS IN EGYPT" documents the export of Italian-crafted small and light weapons to Egypt between 2013 and 2021, and their use in human rights violations committed by state actors.
A thread links the manufacturing of small arms and light weapons in Italy, and their misuse by police, security, and armed forces in Egypt: it's the lack of accountability, which enables producers and perpetrators of human rights abuses to avoid their responsibilities for the impact of their actions on human rights under domestic and international law.
The trade of small arms and light weapons is characterized by significant opacity and chronic lacks of transparency, meaning that state and international regulatory bodies struggle to monitor the shipment of armaments which Italy exports to Egypt every year, thus undermining the state's capacity to regulate such trade in light of concerns for human rights and security.
This research provides a comprehensive (to the largest extent possible) account of the volume, value, and content of the small arms and light weapons trade between Italy and Egypt in the 2013-2021 period.
Our findings, which come from the cross-analysis of multiple governmental and international datasets, demonstrate that Italy never interrupted the sale of armaments to Egypt in the past decade, not even in the aftermath of the murder of Giulio Regeni, but rather sold small arms and light weapons to Egypt of a value higher than € 62 millions.
The material exported included over 30.120 revolvers and self-loading pistols, more than 3.600 rifles, and more that 470 assault rifles, plus an unspecified number of carbines, light and heavy machine guns, shotguns, ammunition, technology and softwares for military use, and spare parts.
In so doing, Italy contravened to the provisions enshrined it its own domestic law, No.185/1990, the European Common Position 2008/944/CFSP, and the Arms Trade Treaty, all of which forbid the export of military material to countries responsible for severe human rights violations, or where such material is likely to be used for internal repression.
Moreover, the present report sheds light on the misuse of Italian-crafted small and light weapons in Egypt, documenting incidents in which firearms manufactured in Italy were used to commit abuses such as internal repression, police brutality against peaceful demonstrators, and even extrajudicial killings. The models of Italian weapons used in human rights violations include Beretta 70/90 and ARX160 rifles, Benelli M3T Super 90 and M1 Super 90 shotguns, and Beretta pistols F92.
Demonstrating and stressing the existence of a nexus between the proliferation of small and light weapons and the deterioration of human security and basic rights in Egypt, this report makes the case for a halt of arms transfers to Egypt in light of their proven use in human rights violations.
The report includes recommendations to the Italian Parliament and government as well as to international regulatory bodies (such as European Parliament and Council) to ensure accountability and respect for the existing policies on arms trade and human rights protection, including Italian domestic Law No.185/1990 and the Arms Trade Treaty (ATT), and halting all SALW exports to Egypt.
The report will be presented officially at the Press room of the Italian Chamber of Deputies, in Rome, on the 24 May, at 10:00AM CET.
The report is available in English, Italian, and Arabic (to be released soon):
The Full Report in English
Il Rapporto Completo in Italiano
التقرير كامل بالعربية